The trait, type, factorial and dimensional approaches have primarily assumed a structural approach and have attempted to identify the basic units or types of personality structure. Thus, nowadays, Freud’s theory on human development is labeled the psychosexual stages of development. Projective tests fall into two categories- tests of structure and tests of content. Some of the important projective tests have been described above. We are familiar with the intimate relationship between psychology and the other social sciences like anthropology and sociology. By the term ‘phenomenal’ he means psychological or perceived space. This method is called the rating method. The study of the growth and development of the human personality is called . Consistency in behaviour results from repeated learning of certain behavioural patterns, resulting in stimulus generalisation and response generalization. The only just laws are the ones that punish those that actually degrade someone’s human personality. The concept of ‘self develops gradually and the most crucial thing for the development of a healthy personality is the degree of “congruence” or agreement between an individual’s ‘self-concept’ and ‘self-triggered’ expectation on one hand, and the actual experience of the person on the other. some people are outgoing whereas others are shy), and influence behavior. The child is not born with a ‘personality’ but develops one as a result of continuous interaction with different aspects of the environment. However, a number of other techniques, exclusive to the field of personality measurement have also been developed. Psychologists like Maslow, Rogers, and Goldstein who belong to this group, prefer to use the term ‘self rather than personality. Some people refer to the physical appearance like height, weight, colour, body built, dress, voice, etc. Theory of human personality Intro to essay 2 q1 DescriptionSummarize Freud’s theory of human, Piaget’s approach to human development, and Mead’s view of the development of the self. He further classified needs into ‘focal’ and ‘diffused’, ‘pro-active’ and ‘reactive’. The problem is relatively easy in the case of intelligence tests and also aptitude tests. He went on to develop an inventory with a number of questions and asked them to respond to certain statements by stating whether they had those ideas, experiences, feelings, etc. Such as how I have found my personality group through Human metrics; which presented that I was within the INFJ grouping (Jung, 1998). Such a view can be called a descriptive and static view of personality. Thus, a young child who returns from school and has his milk moves into the region of play. Some psychologists like Eysenck are very critical of projective tests. When we talk of ‘personality’, it is very natural to question what are the units of personality? If these conditions are taken care of, then rating is a useful procedure. Need for the Concept of Personality: Essay # 3. Another common technique of measuring personality is through questionnaires and inventories. Sometimes an incom­plete sentence may be followed by a few alternative answers and one is required to choose one’s response from these. Migram’s research study indicates very powerful role the situation may play in human personality. On the other hand, the provision of models may bias the rater to fit the rating to some particular model. These programmes and suggestions are mostly based on principles of operant conditioning and modelling. c. humanistic psychology. Psychodynamic Approach to Personality: Essay # 6. Bandura calls the latter self-efficacy. Some of the points which are commonly agreed upon are given below: 1. these alone, individually or taken together, cannot help us to understand, interpret or predict the behaviour of a person. The personality of an individual, to a large extent, remains stable. As a result, very often personality has to be studied in such a way that the data observed is relatively free from distortion by such mechanisms. Understanding human behavior as reflected upon within the psychology perspective, personality theories plays a very critical environment where it is much easy to understand human behavior through different perspectives. Such questionnaires are called structured or closed-ended questionnaires. When this privilege is taken away problems occur. In fact, this is the most characteristic function of personality. In this discussion we will discuss how each person has a different personality and what features make up their personality. The cards are exposed to the person one after the other, each for a time period of a maximum of five minutes. These types of laws assume that people will do wrong and that their human personality is wrong. It consists of a set of ten ink-blots which are bilaterally symmetrical. The study of the growth and development of the human personality is called a. social psychology. Based on the above indicators, psychologists who are well-trained in the interpretation of the Rorschach test are able to assess personalities. According to Kelly, an individual, in the course of his growth and development comes to develop certain expectations, about events, things and the behaviour of others. Abnormalities result when the development of ‘self-regard’ is not proper or when there is a serious incongruence between one’s own self-perception and evaluation of one’s behaviour and evaluation by others or others perception. The personality of an individual develops as a result of continuous interaction between environmental factors, on the one hand, and constitutional and hereditary factors, on the other. What is involved here is the effect which that man has on the person who is describing him. Thus, when we define a person as rigid, reserved and so on, it is obvious that we are thinking of these basic features as adjectives which describe the person. October 7, 2020 MLA, Psychology and Education No Comments. In addition, measurement, description and even prediction has been made possible, though not with total accuracy. The most accepted scholarly taxonomy of personality traits, known as the Five Factor Model, classifies personality characteristics into five major factors. It is also claimed that behavioural theories and the techniques developed by them have been more useful in modifying and changing behaviour. b. psychoanalytic (Freudian) psychology. Thus, objectivity, reliability and validity constitute the three essential attributes of personality questionnaires or inventories. In many situations, questionnaires, observations and projective tests are all employed. But these tests have also been criticised as being very subjective and not reliable and valid. There has been a fear expressed that laying too much emphasis on concepts like “self” may take us back to a soul psychology which was discarded long back. The relationship between human and nature can be described in different ways; it can be beautiful, cruel or at times puzzling. Basically the behaviouristic position would hold that personality is nothing but the package of consistent and generalized elements in the behaviour of a person across different situations. Projective tests assume that the inner aspect of personality, particularly the unconscious components, can be measured by requiring the individual to act upon, interpret, organise or manipulate certain unstructured stimulus situations. The exact technique of measurement used, depends on the purpose envisaged, the type of person whose personality is being assessed, the preferences, and biases of the particular psychologist. (g) The phenomenological approach lays emphasis on the human personality as a ‘whole’ and distinct ‘totality’ and holds that it cannot be dissected into elements like traits, needs and reflexes. Some psychologists have, therefore, concerned themselves with the identification of such basic characteristics of personality, describing and measuring them. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion. Different people react differently to frustrating situations. Such an approach is called the structural approach to personality. Rating, therefore, is a very complex and intricate process. (iv) Rosen Zweig’s Picture Frustration Test: This test was developed by Saul Rosenzweig, not as a test of personality but as a tool to study people’s reaction to frustration. The personality of an individual provides a frame of reference for the events occurring in the individual’s life. It's based on the works of Carl Jung, a very prominent figure in the field of Psychology. This is known as the global approach, which has the advantage of giving a total assessment of each person. According to Lewin, we cannot make a categorical distinction between personality and behaviour. (c) What are the events and developments that have led to the present situation? One such attempt was that of Rotter who stated that past learning creates certain expectations or cognitive expectancies. He proposed that the differences in learning experiences are the major reasons behind the difference in human behavior. Psychological researches even today are not free from the controversy between these two views, the dynamic view, on the one hand and the static descriptive view, on the other. But very soon, the total intellectual poverty and inadequacy of explaining human behaviour became too obvious. The paper will explore Allen’s personality and the relationship between those past experiences and maladjustment. Behaviour measures used are learning on a mirror-drawing board, perception of reversible figures, etc. It may, therefore, be seen that personality measurement has become a very skilled and sophisticated operation. There are certain organising and integrating processes which help to combine and weave these individual processes into the behaviour of a person. Both ratings and questionnaires measure personality on the basis of either observations by the rater or by the subject’s response. It is a dynamic theory unlike the S-R. theories. Each right plays a major role in the well-being of any human. ‘Psychogenic’ needs, the former being basically phenomenological and physiological in nature and the latter psychological. 2 It is not clear what uplifts and what degrades human personality because it is human nature to, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Beowulf Essay, Fate and Love in A Midsummer Night's Dream Essay. Many of us must have used this term quite often. 5. For example, in an interview situation, the interviewers observe the behaviour of a person and rate his personality on a scale ranging from a low to high value. Personality is dynamic. (d) The phenomenological approach considers human behaviours distinctly different, from those of animals, and is against any explanation of personality, in terms of instincts learnt and conditioned responses etc. The rater should have sufficient skill and practice in carrying it out. Childhood experiences play an important and determining role in the formation of personality. The novel proves that humans need society to survive. And this will result in a poor rating on this quality. Essay example informal, critical media analysis essay example. According to Mischel, such learnt person variables account for individual variations in the way people handle new situations. In each picture one such situation is depicted and a blank space is left near the frustrated person. Two of the prominent psychologists associated with this approach are Kurt Lewin & Goldstein. Personality traits are durable dispositions of behaviour that occur across a variety of situations. (h) In general the phenomenological approach emphasises “contemporaneity”. Personality types are sometimes distinguished from personality traits, with the latter embodying a smaller grouping of behavioral tendencies.Types are sometimes said to involve qualitative differences between people, whereas traits might be construed as quantitative differences. It has been criticised as being unscientific and mainly descriptive. When someone rapes another they are taking away their free will to do whatever they choose. Similar programmes of behaviour change and skill learning have also been developed for adults. I was also able to learn much more about the career that I may be pursuing in the future, as well as the people in the field similar to it. Personality In some situations, one person is directly associated with the frustration. Behavioural Approach to Personality: Essay # 8. Based on their surrounding, humans can simply accept nature, deal with their situation, He wanted to develop a test of personality which would help measure it in its totality. The Guardian published an abridged version of this essay in 2018, which was originally released in Look magazine just after Dr. King was killed. According to him, every individual lives in a ‘phenomenal or psychological space’. But it is not always used in such a way in modem psychology. Personality as a Descriptive Concept: Essay # 4. Behavioural tests have the distinct advantage in that they can be clearly and directly observed. Responses are, thus, classified in this manner. Personality is the way that a person behaves, in short, the outcome of the human behavior. In such instances psychologists employ indirect measures and what are more popularly known as projective tests. The events taking place inside the body particularly within the brain an. It is obvious, therefore, that the term personality is used to refer to the general and consistent characteristics of a person’s behaviour. If we take a look at the basic human rights, we see how there are right to life, the right to practice any religion, freedom of movement, freedom from movement and more. These psychologists established through their research the existence of an authoritarian personality syndrome. We may, therefore, say that even though we may study individual processes like perception, learning, etc. Some raters hesitate to give extremely low or high ratings even though a situation might warrant it. 2. It is based on Murray’s theory of personality. Similarly, Udai Pareek has also done considerable work on this test. Research in these areas brought to light an important point, namely, that personality is not just a static fact. For ensuring a normal life there should be definite distinction between the inner person region and outer environmental region, failing which self-object relationship cannot be established. Rosenzweig was interested in studying differences in people’s reactions to frustration and measuring the same. They depend for their usefulness on the verbal ability of the respondents. 4. For example, when somebody is described as having a pleasant personality, this means that on most of the occasions, this person is very pleasant to meet and get along with. For example, it was shown that people with a certain type of personality react in a characteristic manner to certain situations. Their approach to personality is to explain it in terms of acquired habits of behaviour. A person with a stable personality generally responds in a calm and quiet manner even under stressful situations, in contrast to a person with an unstable personality. The above mentioned points are the three major dimensions for analysis. Indeed, in scientific publishing a review of the learner, and learning there is no accurate information on writing reports. In daily life the term personality is very freely used by people with different meanings. a. social psychology. (c) Thus, the personality of a person essentially is the set of modes and ways in which each person organises the world around. Behavioural measures are very useful where people cannot give verbal response to a questionnaire or a projective test. Facebook 0 Twitter 0 Google+ 0 Viber WhatsApp. It was found by the army that several soldiers developed anxiety and other forms of psychological problems which incapacitated them from taking part in the fighting. Rorschach regards this as an indication of the intellectual level of the person. It may be seen that in all these instances the term personality is used as a descriptive or evaluative term. Structured or unstructured questionnaires are preferred depending on the situations, such as the type of person whose personality is being measured, the purpose of measurement, the amount of time at the disposal of the psychologist, etc. As new needs and motivations arise and also as experiences accumulate, the differentiation goes on. For example, some psychologists have defined the term personality as the sum total of all the characteristics of a person. 2. A pessimist on the other hand is a “prophet of doom”. Essay # 2. However, under certain conditions, the personality of an individual may stop growing. Further, it can also be seen that the type of the test employed depends on the approach and theoretical bias of the person using the test. The phenomenological approach, lays emphasis on ‘wholism’ or ‘totalism’ and is critical of the classical approach of analysis and classification. The actualization or full development of the self is the ultimate and basic driving force behind all human behaviour. Every person has a different personality and some personalities mesh better than others. Personality is defined as the characteristic sets of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. 3. Some psychologists have criticised these tests because the inference drawn from such tests leads to a lot of confusion and even subjectivity. These are, according to Kelly, generalized way of anticipating the world. Books on child training and upbringing which are useful for adults have been brought out and have been found to be very useful. Personality integrates the different elements of behaviour like perception, learning and the affective and cognitive responses. Kelly calls them personal constructs. Today, the field of personality measurement is highly developed and is finding application in a number of situations such as personnel selection, treatment of psychological disorders, etc. This goes a long way in helping us to offer proper guidance to people regarding-the choice of proper vocations, fields of study, etc. 6. Observations . Personality is the ability to aggregate different features that can be identified from different individuals and they work out for the individuals in a … The difference between the trait and type approaches, is that the latter was not concerned about analysis of the entire personality with identifiable elements and arriving at a universal catalogue of traits. Some of the points on which general agreement has been reached are mentioned below: 1. A good illustration of such a scheme is the one of studying behaviour under specific responses, habits, traits and dimensions, propounded by Eysenck. He believed our sexual being was the most powerful of all inner forces throughout human development. 3. Personality is the factor responsible for enabling a psychological order in behaviour and gives direction to behaviour. Nature and Functions of Personality: 2. Over the years, however, several psychologists have found it necessary to change this descriptive and static concept of personality. At the same time, it has also come in for criticism. Meaning of Personality: All of us must have come across the term personality. The term personality, therefore, explains both generality, and individuality in behaviour. Personality has a structural and a functional component. When the subject completes responding to all the cards, there is an enquiry. Colour responses are called ‘C and form responses are called ‘F’. But this does not mean that it is unchanging. 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